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  1. I meant to tie that response with "vague answers." The reason you provided conveys empathy and consideration for the welfare of your family members. That is a mature response which is night and day different from the example I gave above. Being close to home can be one reason for attending a school. However, there are many other reasons such as faculty and curriculum. I personally believe that a full response would include many facets as opposed to merely one vague response.
  2. I agree. In addition to answering prompts (preferably ones that have solutions or have been answered by someone knowledgeable), it also helps to generate your own prompts based on common topics and current events.
  3. Part 3: General Advice for the Interview What should you always avoid during the interview? 1. Vague answers: When standing behind the door and waiting for the interviewer to call your name, you have approximately two minutes to prepare an answer. In that time, you should be thinking of points to make and ordering them in order of importance. 2. Filler words: Too many “likes” and “ums” convey nervousness and will likely translate to a “choppy” answer. To prevent this from happening to you, bear in mind that practice makes perfect. Practice answering prompts and record yourself while doing so. Then, catch yourself whenever you insert filler words into your responses. Is it when you are talking too quickly? Now that you know this, repeat your response and slow down this time. Find the source of the challenge and address it. That is what practice is for. For example, here is how you should not answer a question: Question: Why did you choose to apply to our school? Answer: Well, you know, (filler words convey a lack of confidence) it is close to home so it is where I want to go. The hospitals here are great and are what I am looking for. Feedback: The first words that the interviewee uttered are filler words that convey uncertainty and detract from the flow of his answer. Not only that, but his points were poorly organized. Being close to home is not the main reason for wanting to join a program. A better answer would provide an example of a strong point of the school that the applicant finds alluring. For example, let’s say that McMaster has a history of accepting a culturally diverse range of students in hopes of turning out doctors who can relate to all types of populations, socioeconomic statuses, and beliefs. You can mention how you read through the school’s website and have asked current medical students and they have all confirmed this fact. You can go above and beyond and mention a relevant experience with your own life. What could a relevant experience be? As long as it does not sound forced, any experience involving diversity could be incorporated well into your answer. For example, have you worked or volunteered with children from low socioeconomic statuses? Voice how important you believe acceptance and diversity are and how it matches with your beliefs. A real life example is engaging for the interviewer and truly demonstrates your desire to be a part of their culture. There are a handful of helpful YouTube videos that cover the main points for what an interviewer is looking for during the interview. To get you started, here is one that covers most of the key points: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OLxz4pCBXKo . I should also emphasize the fact that practice makes perfect. This is why you should answer as many prompts as possible with yourself and/or a partner. Some excellent source of prompts with ideal answers can be found here: Practice MMI Interview Questions as well as a handful of Canadian universities with sample question (see McMaster's manual found here). Conclusion Ultimately, the key to success in the MMI is practice and knowing yourself inside and out. Make a habit of reviewing a few prompts a week with a partner. Grade yourself on the days where you do not see your partner. Never forget that practice makes perfect. I wish you the best of luck in your journey. Let me know if you have any questions.
  4. Part 2: What you should know 1. What does “communication” or “rapport” really mean? Communicator: Professional relationships with the patient for trust and autonomy to convey empathy, respect, and compassion. Communicators understand that biases and values of patients and colleagues may affect quality of care. Modifications are made accordingly. For example, consider the following question: Do patients who have beliefs against medical procedures have the right to reject vital treatment? (I.e.: Jehovah's witness and blood transfusion). How would you respond? I believe that a good answer would take the patient’s unique culture and heritage into account. Remember that competent adults have autonomy. As future physicians treating competent patients, we must accommodate the patient’s wishes. This may seem dark at first. But recall that the opposite, paternalism (deciding for the patient) is autocratic and dictatorial. Would you prefer to live in a society where healthcare professionals force-fed you medication telling you that it is for your own good, or would you rather have the right to decide? The latter is obviously the correct answer. In addition to the above, an excellent communicator must respond to non-verbal behaviors, manage emotionally charged conversations, and is adaptive to unique needs of patients and their conditions. This means that you are empathic enough to view the situation from the eyes of others. Synthesize information from patient and family's POVs: from family (with patient's consent), gather psychosocial and biomedical information from interviews. 2. Should I “be myself?” Of course you should be as authentic as possible during the interview. Interviewers can spot lies based on your body language. Honesty often aligns with confidence. However, that does not mean that you should not work on changing some aspects of yourself. This is especially true if you believe that you can improve in any of the following domains: becoming a better communicator, collaborator, leader, scholar and lifelong learner, as well as a health advocate who vouches for the well-being of the population at large. The best way to cultivate the qualities that will help you perform well in the interview is through reviewing practice prompts with a partner frequently. After drilling through some prompts from websites such as those on http://TeachDoctor.com/interview-questions/ or https://www.ucalgary.ca/mdprogram/admissions/mmi/samples, review the ideal responses posted there. How does your answer compare? Are you demonstrating strong communication by viewing the situation from the patient’s point of view? Are you accommodating the patient’s beliefs, socioeconomic status, and values? Compare your answer with a friend and those posted on the website to determine what you must work on. 3. How do I prepare for the acting prompts? There is a certain structure for many acting prompts that you must familiarize yourself with. Typically, you must do the following: 1. Listen to the person without judging them. What are their concerns? How did the situation take place from their shoes? 2. Convey that you understand what they mean. With that said, do not offer false reassurances that may end up promising more than you actually deliver. 3. Demonstrate shared decision making. This is where you convey to the person that you want to work on a solution together. Find common ground with the person. While keeping the above steps in mind, you should also bear in mind that criticism and judgments against the person are not indicators of communication and rapport. This is why you must listen patiently to the other person. Once again, you need to review as many practice prompts as possible. For example, here is a potential question. You are a manager of a chain of restaurants. One 30 year old male worker received a complaint about telling a customer to never come back to the restaurant again. Arguing with customers is against company regulations. You need to lay this person off. What do you do? With the above steps listed, you should listen patiently to the worker’s side of the story. While you must be firm about laying them off, ensure them that you can serve as a reference for other positions if they have other strong points to talk about. Do this calmly and without offering the false hope of rehiring them. Remember that the instructions have been given in the prompt and they clearly indicate that the worker must be fired. However, demonstrate your concern for their wellbeing and future by serving as a reference if they have other strong suits and this was a one-off case. How do you prepare for acting prompts? That is an excellent question. As I previously mentioned, you need to understand what “communication” and “rapport” truly mean. These are qualities that ideal doctors demonstrate at the workplace. Remember that working with others whether they are patients and especially if they are co-workers requires collaboration. You can read more about collaboration in the frameworks of an ideal physician on Queens University’s website (http://www.collaborativecurriculum.ca/en/modules/CanMedsCollaborator/) In addition, you must expose yourself to as many practice scenarios as possible for acting prompts. Try acting them out with a partner and listen to their impression of how it went. You can find plenty of prompts at http://TeachDoctor.com/interview-questions/ or on the sites of many Canadian universities that have any healthcare programs that interviews its students in a multiple mini interview (MMI) format such as https://www.ualberta.ca/physical-therapy/msc-in-physical-therapy/admissions/application-requirements/sample-mmi-questions. As with the previous part of this guide, I emphasized how practice makes progress. You must be responsible enough to practice these interview prompts on a consistent basis. Find a partner to practice with. Ideally, have a model response to compare your answers to and have your partners provide feedback. Let me know if you have any questions. The above are simply answers to "high-yield" questions that others may have.
  5. The following is how I, as a current Canadian medical school student, would go about preparing for medical school interviews.Other people may prepare themselves differently. Some people even say that you cannot prepare for medical school interviews. The multiple mini interview (MMI), for example, is often thought to be impossible to prepare for. I am here to tell you that practice makes perfect. This applies to everything in life. Whether it involves preparing for an organic chemistry test, preparing to give a speech in front of an audience, or practicing for an upcoming driving test, practice is a key element to success. Preparing for the MMI and similar formats of interviews is similar to any other challenge you have faced in life. Practice makes progress. Does which school you are applying to matter? Seeing as to how I was accepted to multiple schools, I do not see why it would not work at any school that interviews students in the MMI format. Whether that is McMaster, UofT, Queens, McGill, Dalhousie, UBC, or any other school you have your sites on, MMI preparation is a skill that can be improved. Part 1: Resources 1. A partner: You need someone to practice with on a weekly basis. Review recent health care articles together and ask each other prompts. Providing feedback for each other is crucial to learning from your mistakes. 2. Practice prompts: There are quite a few resources available such as UBC's own medical school (http://science-student.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2014/01/Sample-Questions-2013-2014.pdf). The best ones include answers to the questions (http://TeachDoctor.com/interview-questions/ ). If you want to improve your interviewing skills, it would make sense to simulate questions from the interview. This website includes in-depth answers from medical students. You can answer all the prompts in the world but how do you know if your answers are what the interviewers are looking for? This is why it is helpful to have a resource that provides helpful responses that you can practice with. 3. Medical Ethics: Ethics in Medicine (URL: http://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/topics/index.html). You are not expected to be a walking encyclopedia when it comes to medical ethics. Medical schools understand that incoming students should only have some knowledge on this topic. 4. Doing Right: A Practical Guide to Medical Ethics by Herbert. This book is held in high regard by a great deal of students. Does it actually help? I personally believe that the University of Washington’s online lessons are more than enough (see link 2). This book is an enjoyable read, but it does not involve enough active recall and practice. Reading it is a passive task that does not help in preparing you for the interview. 5. Communication and rapport: You should demonstrate an ability to establish rapport with patients. Obviously, there are indicators that people convey to the interviewer that they can or cannot convey empathy and consideration for other peoples’ perspectives. You should read the American Medical Association’s 6 tips on how to understand patients (URL: https://wire.ama-assn.org/education/6-simple-ways-master-patient-communication). Again, there are many books on this topic. But the main idea is that you want to convey empathy and establish rapport with patients. Medical schools want to produce doctors who truly care for their patient. As a matter of fact, rapport and understanding the perspective of others is a central aspect of medicine.
  6. Hello, My MMI partner and I are looking to add a third person to our group. We have been practicing for the past few months and have sessions on Mondays from 5-7 PST. We both have interview offers in Canada. If you are interested, send a message or reply to this thread for skype details. Best of luck.
  7. Hello everybody, Thank you for the immensely insightful constructive criticism. I have been recording myself for the past few weeks as opposed to writing out responses for an increased sense of realism as recommended by a member. I have recently started preparing for the Casper test and was wondering how the criteria for these responses differ from the MMI's. Here is a prompt I recently answered. I incorporated the "if I do this, then the best/worst case scenarios would be" approach. I would appreciate your feedback. Summary of the prompt: Fellow group members refuse to continue working on a project because one of the group members purportedly has a bad "B.O." (scent). Response: If I were to tell them that I think their words would be insulting to the group member, the best case scenario is that they will realize the connotation of their words and approach a more subtle and collaborative approach. The worst case scenario is that I too may be insulted and they will refuse to work with me as well, which further threatens the progress made on the project.-If I were to tell them that I will confront the group member, the best case scenario is that they may see me as an excellent collaborator, while the worst case scenario is they will become further polarized in their opinion and have justified their reason further to avoid working on the project. -I would go with the first decision as the former does not insult a partner nor the progress of the project as much as the latter choice. 2. If I communicate my peers’ thoughts to Jenny with suggestions and questions that do not personally involve her (by avoiding “you are” statements), I may be able to convey the message to her without offending her. The best case scenario is she will understand the message without taking offence. If she attempts to read between the lines, she may become offended and become upset. I would opt for this decision regardless because even if she becomes upset temporarily, I can follow up with positive comments and strengthen the relationship. 3. For uncooperative group members, it is best to resolve conflicts while also viewing the situation from their point of view. The best case scenario is that they will feel more rapport with you and thus trust you more and will consider alternative approaches. The worst case scenario is group polarization and more uncooperatively. The latter should not occur so long as you are firm in your stance while also allowing for some flexibility to accommodate the opinions of others.
  8. Hey guys. Thanks for the feedback. Any more feedback for this new prompt? I will consider recording them and posting them from now on. Prompt: A couple has decided to have a child through artificial insemination. They asked the physician for sex selection of the child. What should a physician advise in this situation? Immediate decision: The physician, being a health professional, should remove himself from imposing judgment on the couple and perform his duties while informing the couple of any negative repercussions of sex selection. Pros: -The physician must be compassionate and view the situation from the couple’s standpoint. Perhaps they have a vision of an ideal family that suits their lifestyle. Whether that entails a boy or girl in their lives is a personal matter and as a professional, the physician must seek to improve the psychosocial health of his patients. If the patients are enraptured by the prospect of a child with their preferred gender, then that will improve the quality of life for the patients from a psychosocial standpoint. -As a health advocate, a physician must be culturally aware as opposed to ethnocentric. Perhaps certain cultures have a preference for a certain gender for the child. To criticize the couple would mean to marginalize a culture which, in the long term, has stark health implications. I have read somewhere that Aboriginals suffer from a chronic disease rate (ie: diabetes) that is double the national average in Canada. If sex selection is based on cultural reasons, we would be overlooking an important social determinant of health by refusing to perform sex selection. -A professional physician must fulfill his role as a compassionate health professional and avoid imposing judgment on the couple. Sex selection may understandably conjure controversy due to destroying cells in the process. But the professional must fulfill his patients’ wishes without holding judgment against them. Any personal objections should be repressed and only objective information or information that is to the patient’s benefit should be conveyed. Cons: -Other arguments may state that the definition of life if controversial and a fetus would have potential formed a full human. If the physician, however, has qualms with the controversy over sex selection, he may consider referring the couple to another professional. Decision: -The physician should respect the wishes of the patient or refer them to another professional accordingly. Information provided to the patient should be objective or inform them without involving the physician’s own sentimentality about a situation.
  9. Do you have any public speaking tips for the MMI? Thanks for the feedback, guys.
  10. Would you happen to have a list of these types of questions? I have compiled all of the sample MMI questions from universities across Canada and am answering 1-2 per day in a timed setting (1:15 seconds to prepare and 7:40 to write). Thanks for the feedback, guys. Here is another prompt that I answered today. I am incorporating soft skills as opposed to knowledge as suggested. Any thoughts? Prompt A woman enters the emergency room with stomach pain. She undergoes a CT scan and is diagnosed with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The physicians inform her that the only way to fix the problem is surgically, and that the chances of survival are about 50/50. They also inform her that time is of the essence, and that should the aneurysm burst, she would be dead in a few short minutes. The woman is an exotic dancer; she worries that the surgery will leave a scar that will negatively affect her work; therefore, she refuses any surgical treatment. Even after much pressuring from the physicians, she adamantly refuses surgery. Feeling that the woman is not in her correct state of mind and knowing that time is of the essence, the surgeons decide to perform the procedure without consent. They anesthetize her and surgically repair the aneurysm. She survives, and sues the hospital for millions of dollars. Do you believe that the physician's actions can be justified in any way? Is it ever right to take away someone's autonomy? Cons -The choice of life and undergoing surgery is for the patient to make. The physician’s duty as a health practitioner is to ensure the utmost quality of care for the patient. But care in itself encompasses a vast array of factors. In performing the surgery, did the surgeons truly exhibit “care”? Perhaps physically, they saved the patient’s life. Yet, from a psychosocial standpoint, perhaps the patient’s quality of life was lowered after receiving the surgery. She may have felt violated and her capacity to decide for herself was taken away from her. The surgeons did not act with all variables in mind and this does not exhibit the role of an ideal physician who should be considering all social factors of health before making a decision of this caliber. -The mental health of the patient actually may have suffered after the surgery. The post-surgical anxiety and stress that may ensue was detrimental to her health. -“Feeling” that the women was not in the right state of mind is not enough to impose surgery on the individual. Metrics were not applied and no legal documentation transferred the women’s’ capacity to decide to the surgeons. An ideal physician would respond with empathy and compassion to the situation and consider the possibility that, although the patient states her uncertainty about the surgery due to it affecting her job, that there are unvoiced thoughts that have not been communicated. -(Relate to experience at senior care home – many seniors had do not resuscitate orders and chose their own fate irrespective of the physician’s decision). Pros -One may argue that the surgeons saved the patient’s life despite the 50% mortality rate. However, regardless of whether or not one believes that the duty of the physician is to preserve life, a decision entailing a 50% mortality rate should not be taken lightly. The surgeon’s may have potentially expedited the patient’s death since the timing for the aneurysm’s occurrence is unknown. -This question begs a question similar to one raised by the debate over euthanasia, how much control does the patient have in deciding their fate? Euthanasia is, indeed, legal in countries such as Sweden but outright banned in others. This demonstrates the disparities in decision-making capacities given to the patient in various countries. If a patient is given complete choice in the matter, then there may be a scenario where they lack choice entirely as well. Clearly, just as euthanasia is a contentious matter and is only allowed in certain countries, the scenario is also a difficult decision to make as laxity of laws differ between nations. Decision -The choice of preserving one’s own life is one that the patient themselves should have a say in. Regardless of one’s opinion on the matter, the surgeons overlooked far too many factors. The patient’s psychosocial state, worries, and anxiety over the surgery may not have been fully considered or communicated. Even from a biomedical standpoint, the decision to operate with a 50% mortality rate was also questionable. Ultimately, the patient’s actions were unconscionable. Unless the surgeons had a proven metric for measuring the patient’s inability to make her own decisions, then taking away her autonomy was also questionable.
  11. Thank you very much for the feedback. I definitely need to be more prudent when reading the questions before delving into an answer. Also, incorporating a side note on my past experience in research seems to be an excellent idea that I will definitely incorporate. For the next prompt, I believe that my answer may be missing a possible viewpoint or alternative solution. What do you guys think? Thanks again for the feedback. Prompt You are a genetic counselor. One of your clients, Linda, had a boy with a genetic defect that may have a high recurrence risk, meaning her subsequent pregnancies has a high chance of being affected by the same defect. You offered genetic testing of Linda, her husband, and their son to find out more about their disease, to which everyone agreed. The result showed that neither Linda nor her husband carry the mutation, while the boy inherited the mutation on a paternal chromosome that did not come from Linda's husband. In other words, the boy's biological father is someone else, who is unaware that he carries the mutation. You suspect that Linda nor her husband are aware of this non-paternity. How would you disclose the results of this genetic analysis to Linda and her family? What principles and who do you have to take into consideration in this case? Pros -As a medical professional, our job is to ensure the utmost quality of care for our patients. This includes psychosocial care. Although it would be immoral to hide the finding that the son does not belong to the father, it does not need to be hyperbolized. -We do not yet know whether the father has had previous knowledge of the situation. He may very well be aware of past partners. This ambiguity provides all the more reason to use calm resolve to present the findings of the disease and treatment options and leave the interpretation of the information of the boy’s genetic heritage to the family. -At the same time, empathy must be expressed. When the couple does show a reaction, we may consider offering a re-test or alternative tests in the case that the results were possibly a false-positive. -To accomplish this, we could consider presenting all that is known about the disease itself based on past literature. In passing, it may be mentioned that the origin of the boy’s gene is unknown. However, it should not be delivered in an emotionally charged matter. Cons -Once again, psychosocial health is vital and must be preserved for the mother, father, and boy. If the father was unaware of the fact that he may not be the father, potential disputes may result and the family structure may become perturbed. This, however, is out of the scope of the physician’s care. Indeed, this is a difficult decision. -It would be preferable for the boy’s psychosocial wellbeing to frequently see both his mother and father when growing up. Discuss options that the couple might have such as psychological counseling if needed. These are decisions that the patients themselves may decide on. -(Discuss the negative effects of single-parent homes and a recent experience volunteering at a low SES Elementary School.) Decision -Before considering presenting the fact that the boy’s paternal lineage differs, prudence must be practiced in order to prevent a calamitous end result. In other words, we do not know how the father or mother would react to the revelation. It would be best to remove emotionally charged phrases from the conversation and present the findings in an evidence-based manner that is all the same sympathetic and not aloof. -We must express empathy and compassion when discussing the information and treatments for the child. The interpretation and decisions that result from the information are for the patients to make.
  12. Thank you, InstantRamen. I feel as if the people who are replying to this thread are genuinely providing constructive feedback. It would be foolish to dismiss perfectly valid constructive criticism. I have answered another prompt with all of the recent feedback in mind. What do you guys think? I have tried to emphasize empathy over rote facts. Prompt Your mother calls you and asks you to help with a major family decision. Your maternal grandfather is 70 years old and has been diagnosed with a condition that will kill him some time in the next five years. He can have a procedure that will correct the disease and not leave him with any long-term problems, but the procedure has a 10% mortality rate. He wants to have the procedure, but your mother does not want him to. How would you help mediate this issue? Pros -My grandfather is likely feeling conflicted about the situation. The mortality rate may be a daunting number to mull over, but he may not want to be a burden. Perhaps he understands that at-home care, since it is oftentimes not covered by Medicare, is costly and will pose financial stress on family members. Assuming that the condition will slowly degenerate his currently functional body’s physiology, he may opt for a surgical procedure to prevent this burden on the family. -A 10% mortality rate is quite a considerable number. However, if the grandfather chooses to opt for the surgery, he is able to decide for himself. -To mediate this issue, I would ensure that the grandfather is fully aware of the consequences of the surgery and whether he will be happy with its outcomes should it be successful. Will there be any permanent pain or inconveniences involved for the post-surgery outcome? These are factors he should consider should he want to make a sound decision. I would recommend reading past literature and established research articles on the procedure to expand his breadth of knowledge on the situation. Cons -My mother is clearly worried about the outcome of the surgery and the possibility of mortality. She is likely not concerned about the financial burden as much as saving her father. Understandably, she wants to keep her father alive for as long as possible due to her emotional attachment to him. -To reassure my mother of the surgery, I would recommend an evidence-based approach by suggesting that she read past literature and research articles on the surgery. -I would also have my mother and grandfather discuss the financial situation of the surgery as there are two conflicting views on the matter. While my grandfather wants to avoid becoming a financial burden, my mother is not concerned about in-home care so much as saving my grandfather’s life. Perhaps my mother can communicate to my grandfather than finances are not a factor he should consider for the surgery should that be the case. Decision -I can understand the reasoning of both my grandfather and my mother so far as considering the surgery is concerned. Ultimately, communicating the factors that each person is considering is necessary to ensure that both of them are placing enough emphasis on the most important factors such as quality of life and post-surgery care. I would personally recommend conducting more research via evidence-based articles to explore these factors based on previous patients who have undergone the surgery.
  13. I need to work on placing myself in the patient's shoes. Thanks for the feedback.
  14. Hey guys, I have a few more prompts I have answered. I have reviewed the feedback I have received thus far and applied them in my response. I would appreciate any further feedback. These ones were written under timed conditions (2 minutes to plan and 8 minutes to respond). Also, if anybody is looking for an MMI partner, I am looking for a dedicated MMI partner who can invest at least 1-2 hours per week for a weekly mock MMI session. I am taking the current application cycle seriously and will work relentlessly to perfect my interviewing skills.I am open to feedback and can also provide critique when requested.Thanks again. Prompts: 1. A 14 year old patient requests birth control pills from you and asks that you not tell her parents. What would you do? Reasons not to tell parents: -Ethically, a health professional is inclined to respect the patient’s wishes for privacy in the matter. Regardless of whether a decision is made to enclose the information to the parents, the physician must inform the patient themselves about the adverse effects of their decisions. The pros and cons of taking the birth control pills must be discussed in depth with the patient. If the patient wishes to continue her promiscuity, then she should be advised about preventative measures for avoiding sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy in the future. -The physician should convey his empathy and compassion for the patient’s situation and express his concern. The psychosocial state of the patient is a matter of concern. For instance, the physician should understand that a fourteen year old girl partaking in sexual activities may not be healthy from a psychological standpoint and may be facing emotional complexes. A suggestion should be made to visit a child therapist. Reasons to tell parents: -Although a physician should respect the privacy of his patients, the patient in question is under the age of 18 and therefore the parental guardian is able to make decisions for the individual and should have the right to know about the health status of their dependent. If the parents were to inquire about any peculiarities in the child’s behavior, then this information should be enclosed with the legal guardians as they are deemed as capable of making sound decisions while an individual under 18 is not. -The age of the sexual partner is not made apparent. The individual may be over the age of 18. In this case, a crime is taking place. The physician must take a leadership role in the situation and alert the parents to gather more information on the matter. Decision: -Ultimately, a fourteen year old patient is under the age of consent. Furthermore, the ambiguity of the information given such as the age of the sexual partner suggest the possible occurrence of a crime. Therefore, it would be advisable to alert the parents and request that they monitor the child’s activities in order to protect the child’s own welfare and health. 2. A member of your family decides to depend solely on alternative medicine for treatment of his or her significant illness. What would you do? Reasons to switch approach: -Recent studies have suggested that the evidence-based medicine that has been applied in many provinces across Canada such as BC have found that evidence-based medicine is effective in treating patients and lowers healthcare costs in the process. Alternative medicine, if lacking research with established findings and significant results, may not treat the family member’s ailments as effectively as other approaches. -If the family member believes that he is experiencing an effect with alternative medicine, then the effect may be due to a placebo. As an academic, a physician should advocate sound research with reference to studies that have control and placebo groups to compare results with. Reasons to continue relying on alternative medicine: -Not all traditional methods of dealing with chronic illnesses are necessarily effective. For instance, studies across Canada have proven that screening for prostate cancer in a sample of approximately 2,500 patients leads to about 70 false positives and one life that is truly saved. The other 69 patients who received a false positive undergo superfluous psychological stress and other complications due to a false reading. This reason alone, however, does not generalize to all chronic illnesses and would not be enough to fully deter the family member from alternate medicine. -The remedy from the alternative medicine may very well have an effect on the patient’s health outcomes if not from psychological reassurance alone. The placebo effect is often so strong that the psychological relief experienced from receiving any form of treatment (whether it is alternative medicine or evidence-based) would suffice to feel relief possibly due to lower stress levels. -The family member is completely autonomous and has the right to choose their healthcare options. However, it would be in their best interest to suggest that they conduct research to confirm that their treatment options in alternative medicine have significant results. Decision: -As a healthcare practitioner, one must acknowledge that a significant illness such as cancer must be addressed with the goal of prolonging the quality and quantity of life. If the alternative medicine has had statistically insignificant results or less effective results than evidence-based treatment methods such as chemotherapy, then it would be in the family member’s best interests to alter their views and accept better treatment options.
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