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I'm researching ePortfolio usage among surgical residents across the world (as part of a thesis project). And following are questions which some of you may have insight on.The topic is "Application of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in Digital Portfolios"...But any insight on this narrow topic is highly appreciated (like if a question below is totally invalid!!): How much would you say the below mentioned points are pain-points for surgical eportfolio usage? What may be the cause of portfolios being viewed as ‘thick-box’ exercises rather than an educational tool? Manual, time-consuming & error-prone data entry Most evaluations in the form of simple text Hawthorne effect (observer effect) or inter/intra-rater reliability Complicated user experience with portfolio management system interfaces Variety of assessment tools that require supervisor time to go through, occasionally In countries like the US & UK, surgical cases are separately logged than CBME learning instances/milestones. How much of a friction do you think this is in wider acceptance of digital portfolios? (or Would you say that since it is a regulatory requirement, there is even no question of that...?) Do you think it's ever possible to innovate in surgical competency assessment considering country-specific needs, top-down controlled curriculums? How would you rate the chance of the following novelties in disrupting how surgeons are being evaluated: Addition of video analysis of recorded surgical operations into the portfolio Combined analysis of all data in current portfolios by AI algorithms, i.e. continuous evaluation of data collected in a portfolio rather than occasional supervisor review and feedback Combining progress data of peer residents to guide individual users Other? The original TAM says that Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use are primary factors in how a new technology is accepted. Which of the two would be critical in the surgical training portfolio tool acceptance? thanks a lot!